The communalist approach focuses on ethnic political mobilization by examining modernization, resource scarcity, and elite competition. Modernization, its inherent processes and consequences affect central and peripheral ethnic groups in two ways. It reduces ethnic diversity within dominant and subordinate ethnic groups by eroding local identities and, consequently, the formation of a large-scale ethnic identity is encouraged. Based on data from India, the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, Brass (1991) shows how the emergence of new elites that contributed to resource scarcity and centralizing tendencies of the state were combined to create intense elite competition and ethnic polarization in many of these societies. Although communalist approaches tend to place too much emphasis on the element of “greedy elites”, they generally improve understanding of ethnic identity formation on a large scale in modernizing societies (Taras and Ganguly, 1998). The use of law and legal systems by disadvantaged people to challenge the unjust distribution of power and resources is a real phenomenon that is older and exists independently of international law and legal aid.  Although political geography has contributed to our understanding of the roles and functions of the state in a global capitalist economy, there is still a need to continue to address questions about the extent and nature of the impact of state participation in the global capitalist economy on social movements. Social movements that make ethnic demands are largely the product of the failure to build a nation-state on the periphery of the capitalist system. The relationship of the state to the capitalist economy could shape collective action against the state, not least because the process of capital accumulation (e.g., privatization) and its effects (e.g., growing inequality) create conditions for social mobilization.
There has been a huge stream of work on theories of the state emphasizing the linear development of the modern state. According to Lisa Vanhala (November 2011), legal mobilization in the narrow sense can refer to high-profile litigation efforts for (or arguably against) social change, or more generally the term legal mobilization has been used to describe any type of process in which an individual or collective actor invokes legal norms, discourses or symbols to influence policy or behavior.  This usually means that there are guidelines or regulations around which to mobilize and a mechanism to do so.  Legislative activity creates an opportunity for legal mobilization. Courts become particularly relevant when applicants have means.  The political mobilization that is at the heart of social movements has a spatial context that cannot be ignored if we want to fully understand these movements. The interdisciplinary nature of social groups and the insights of analyses of scale and place in geography provide opportunities to deepen our understanding of human action in the broad field of human geography. It is important to follow social movements across time and space; However, attention should be paid to how generations of social movements have benefited from each other, for example in terms of strategies. A combination of factors shapes the emergence, character and activities of social groups. These factors also distinguish one group from another. Despite their differences, social movements are closely linked to state activities and thus blur the boundaries between formal and informal politics.
They draw attention to social groups as “political” in political geography. The fact that social movements have helped change the political map of the world means that they are a political force that political geographers cannot ignore. Legal engagement requires us to have a good understanding and critical relationship between law and other fields and disciplines. Through the interdisciplinary field of social law studies, we integrate a critical approach to the analysis of public policies and their implementation as well as the consequences of corporate behavior. In addition, Lisa Vanhala`s research on legal mobilization has explained the key roles and justifications of social movements in mobilizing law to address environmental harm, promote the rights of persons with disabilities, and other issues. Management engagement includes organized efforts to integrate different resources to achieve objectives effectively and efficiently. Before making engagement efforts, it is important to identify all the resources, the resources needed to achieve a particular goal, and how those resources should be integrated. For example, a manager identifies an organization`s materials, labor, capital, and human resources. It uses different strategies to mobilize the flow of each of these resources: for example, the acquisition of material resources may involve better negotiation strategies with suppliers; Labour mobilization may require favourable working conditions and motivation; Capital raising may take the form of concessional borrowing; And mobilizing human resources can make workers more productive and better equipped to carry out the tasks envisaged.
The research project on legal mobilisation has its origins in the INFAR project led by Professor Sanne Taekema of the Erasmus School of Law, in which ISS has been closely involved, and in various collaborations between ISS and the Wits School of Law and the work on the Child Rights Index led by Professor Karin Arts.