When to Use See Legal Citation

A space must separate an introductory signal from the rest of the quotation, without an intermediate clause. See, for example, American Trucking Associations v. United States EPA, 195 F.3d 4 (D.C. Cir. 1999). If more than one signal is used, they must correspond to this order. Signals of the same basic type (supportive, comparative, contradictory, or background) are collected in a single set of citations, separated by semicolons. Signals of different types should be summarized in different quotation sentences. For example: In law, a quotation or introductory signal is a series of phrases or words used to clarify the authority (or meaning) of a legal quotation in relation to a proposition. It is used in quotes about current authorities and indicates how those authorities relate to statements. Legal writers use citation signals to tell readers how citations support (or reject) their statements by organizing citations in a hierarchy of importance so that the reader can quickly determine the relative weight of a citation. Citation signals help the reader recognize the importance or usefulness of a reference when the reference itself does not provide sufficient information. The term “agreement” is used when two or more sources state or support the proposal, but the text cites (or refers) to only one; The other sources are then introduced by “Agreement”.

Legal writers often use concordance to indicate that the law of one jurisdiction coincides with that of another. Examples: “[T]he nervousness alone does not justify prolonged detention and questioning on matters unrelated to the arrest.” United States v. Chavez-Valenzuela, 268 F.3d 719,725 (9th cir. 2001); United States v. Beck, 140 F.3d 1129, 1139 (8th Cir. 1998); United States v. Holz, 106 F.3d 942, 248 (10th Cir. 1997); United States v. Tapia, 912 F.2d 1367, 1370 (11th Cir. 1990). “. The term “Fifth Amendment” is generally considered synonymous with the privilege of self-incrimination in the context of our time.

Quinn v. United States, 349 U.S. 155, 163, 75 pp. C. 668, 99 L. Ed. 964 (1955); agreement In re Johnny V., 85 Cal. App.3d 120, 149 Cal.Rptr. 180, 184, 188 (Cal. Ct. App. 1978) (stating that the statement “I will take the fifth” was an affirmation of Fifth Amendment privilege).

From the Latin confer (“to compare”), this indicates that a quoted sentence differs from the main proposition, but is sufficiently analogous to be substantiated. An explanatory note in parentheses is recommended to clarify the relevance of the quotation. For example, it is precisely this kind of conjecture and haircut that the Supreme Court wanted to avoid when designing the brightness rule in Miranda. See Davis, 512 U.S., p. 461 (noting that when the suspect seeks advice, the advantage of the brightness rule is “clarity and ease of application” that “can be applied by officials in the real world without unduly impeding intelligence gathering” by forcing them to “make difficult judgments” with a “threat of repression, if you are mistaken”). In footnotes, signals can function as verbs in sentences; In this way, material that would otherwise be in parentheses can be integrated into an explanation. In this usage, signs must not be italicized. See Christina L. Anderson, Comment, Double Jeopardy: The Modern Dilemma for Juvenile Justice, 152 U. Pa. Rev.

L. 1181, 1204-07 (2004) (discusses four main types of restorative justice programs) See: Christina L. Anderson, commentary, Double Jeopardy: The Modern Dilemma for Juvenile Justice, 152 et al. 1181, 1204-07 (2004), for a discussion of restorative justice as an appropriate substitute for retaliatory sanctions. “Cf.” becomes “compare” and “e.g.” becomes “for example” when signals are used as verbs. Most citation signals are placed before the quote to which they refer. In the section, quote signals have different meanings in different citation style systems in the United States. The two best-known citation manuals are The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation[1] and the ALWD Citation Manual.

[2] Some state-specific style manuals also provide guidance on legal citation. The Bluebook citation system is the most comprehensive and widely used system of courts, law firms, and law journals. [ref. needed] The cited authority contradicts the above-mentioned thesis by analogy; It is recommended to explain the relevance of the source in parentheses. For example: But see 995 F.2d, at p. 1137 (stating that “[i]n the ordinary tort suit that arises when a government driver carelessly drives another car, a jury trial is exactly what a plaintiff loses when the government replaces the employee”). If, for example, is combined with another signal, the location of the combined signal is replaced by the non-e.g. Signal; The combined sign “see, for example” should be placed where the sign “see” would normally be.

In a quote clause, quote strings can contain different types of signals. These signals are separated by semicolons. Parts of the text, footnotes, and authority groups in the article are cited at the top or bottom. Supra refers to the material that is already included in the part, and at the bottom to the material that appears later in the part. “Note” and “part” mean footnotes and parts (if the parts were specially designed) in the same room; “p.” and “pp.” are used to refer to other pages of the same article. [5] These abbreviations should be used sparingly to avoid repeating a long footnote or referring to a neighbouring footnote. If the authors do not report a quotation, the cited authority indicates the suggestion, is the source of the quoted quotation, or identifies an authority mentioned in the text; For example, one court noted that “the appropriate role of trial and appellate courts in the federal system in reviewing the size of jury verdicts is a matter for federal law”[3] or “Bilida was charged in state court with the offense of possession of raccoon without authorization.” [4] This suggests that the cited authority represents additional elements that support the thesis less directly than what is indicated by “see” or “agree”. “See also” can be used to introduce a case that supports the stated thesis and is different from the cases cited above. It is sometimes used to refer readers to authorities supporting a proposal when other supporting authorities have already been cited or discussed. An explanation of the relevance of the source in parentheses after a quote introduced by “see also” is recommended. For example, “.

The omission of the same intellectual element in a firearms possession law similar to RCW 9.41.040 strongly suggests that the omission was intentional and that strict liability was intended. See generally State v. Alvarez, 74 Wash. App. 250, 260, 872 P.2d 1123 (1994) (the omission of the phrase “conduct” in the criminal counterpart of the civil law against harassment meant: “The legislature has deliberately chosen to criminalize a single act and not conduct.”) aff`d, 128 Wash.2d 1, 904 P.2d 754 (1995); see also State v.